Setting up a local caching proxy for Fedora YUM repositories

Posted: December 9th, 2015 | Author: | Filed under: Coding Tips, Fedora, OpenStack, Virt Tools | Tags: , , , , | 3 Comments »

For my day-to-day development work I currently have four separate physical servers, one old x86_64 server for file storage, two new x86_64 servers and one new aarch64 server. Even with a fast fibre internet connection, downloading the never ending stream of Fedora RPM updates takes non-negligible time. I also have cause to install distro chroots on a reasonably frequent basis for testing various things related to containers & virtualization, which involves yet more RPM downloads. So I decided it was time to investigate the setup of a local caching proxy for Fedora YUM repositories. I could have figured this out myself, but I fortunately knew that Matthew Booth had already setup exactly the kind of system I wanted, and he shared the necessary config steps that are outlined below.

The general idea is that we will reconfigure the YUM repository location on each machine needing updates to point to a local apache server, instead of the Fedora mirror manager metalink locations. This apache server will be setup using mod_proxy to rewrite requests to point to the offsite upstream download location, but will also be told to use a local squid server to access the remote site, thereby caching the downloads.

Apache setup

Apache needs to be installed, if not already present:

# dnf install httpd

A new drop-in config file addition for apache is created with two mod_proxy directives. The ProxyPass directive tells apache that any requests for http://<our-ip>/fedora/* should be translated into requests to the remote site http://dl.fedoraproject.org/pub/fedora/linux/*. The ProxyRemote directive tells apache that it should not make direct connections to the remote site, but instead use the local proxy server running on port 3128. IOW, requests that would go to dl.fedoraproject.org will instead get sent to the local squid server.

# cat > /etc/httpd/conf.d/yumcache.conf <<EOF
ProxyPass /fedora/ http://dl.fedoraproject.org/pub/fedora/linux/
ProxyPass /fedora-secondary/ http://dl.fedoraproject.org/pub/fedora-secondary/
ProxyRemote * http://localhost:3128/
EOF

The ‘fedora-secondary’ ProxyPass is just there for my aarch64 machine – not required if you are x86_64 only

The out of the box SELinux configuration prevents apache from making network requests, so it is necessary to toggle a SELinux boolean flag before starting apache

# setsebool httpd_can_network_relay=1

With that done, we can start apache and set it to run on future boots too

# systemctl start httpd.service
# systemctl enable httpd.service

Squid setup

Squid needs to be installed, if not already present:

# dnf install squid

The out of the box configuration for squid needs a few small tweaks to optimize it for YUM repo mirroring. The default cache replacement policy purges the least recently used objects from the cache. This is not ideal for YUM repositories – if the YUM update needs 100 RPMS downloading and only 95 of the fit in cache, by the time the last package is downloaded we’ll be pushing the first package out of cache again, which means the next machine will have cache miss. The LFUDA policy keeps popular objects in the cache regardless of size and optimizes the byte hit rate at expense of object hit rate. Some RPMS can be really rather large, so the default maximum object size of 4 MB is totally inadequate, increasing it to 8 GB is probably overkill but will ensure we always attempt to cache any RPM regardless of its size. The cache_dir directive is there to tell squid to use threads for accessing objects to give greater concurrency. The last two directives are critical telling squid not to cache the repomd.xml files whose contents change frequently – without this you’ll often YUM trying to fetch outdated repo data files which no longer exist

# cat >> /etc/squid/squid.conf <<EOF
cache_replacement_policy heap LFUDA
maximum_object_size 8192 MB
cache_dir aufs /var/spool/squid 16000 16 256 max-size=8589934592
acl repomd url_regex /repomd\.xml$
cache deny repomd
EOF

With that configured, squid can be started and set to run on future boots

# systemctl start squid.service
# systemctl enable squid.service

Firewall setup

If a firewall is present on the cache machine, it is necessary to allow remote access to apache. This can be enabled with a simple firewall-cmd instruction

# firewall-cmd --add-service=http --permanent

Client setup

With the cache server setup of the way, all that remains is to update the Fedora YUM config files on each client machine to point to the local server. There is a convenient tool called ‘fedrepos’ which can do this, avoiding the need to open an editor and change the files manually.

# dnf install fedrepos
# fedrepos baseurl http://yumcache.mydomain/fedora --no-metalink

NB on the aarch64 machine, we need to point to fedora-secondary instead

# fedrepos baseurl http://yumcache.mydomain/fedora-secondary --no-metalink

Replace ‘yumcache.mydomain’ with the hostname or IP address of the server running the apache+squid cache of course. If the cache is working as expected you should see YUM achieve 100 MB/s download speed when it gets a cache hit.

3 Comments

Samuel Sieb said at 7:37 pm on December 15th, 2015:

The big problem with this is that you’re always going to the same mirror. And anyone copying your config will be going directly to the main mirror. If the mirror you’re using is down, you’ll have change the destination which will invalidate the entire cache.

I have a location with about 50 computers running Fedora, so a couple of years ago I wrote my own caching proxy in python that is specifically designed to deal with yum or dnf caching. It still has a few issues, but it’s an amazing improvement over having them all download separately. I suspect that creating a dnf plugin would make it easier to manage.

TheFlipside said at 1:18 pm on August 18th, 2016:

on step 3 the command should be “# setsebool -P httpd_can_network_relay=1” to make sure the setting is preserved after a reboot

really nice tutorial, just what I was looking for and still applicable

Jeffrey Cutter said at 11:26 pm on November 27th, 2016:

Just what I needed and its working great. Thanks for sharing!

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